Fort Bragg Library
A brief history of the Fort Bragg Library
Eugene M. Lewis
Fort Bragg, a city of some 7,000 located on the Pacific Ocean coastline of California about 140 miles north of San Francisco, is blessed with an excellent branch of the Mendocino County Library system. Establishment of this well-regarded public facility, however, was a long story, full of individual determination, political drama and clashes of personalities.
Permanently settled in 1885 on an abandoned military reservation the fledgling mill town was incorporated as a city on August 5, 1889. A “reading room” furnished by the Womens’ Christian Temperance Union first served the new community in the next year. In a meeting on June 18, 1890 they decided that a reading room for the benefit of the public was a move in the right direction especially for the hordes of rough and ready loggers who came to town from the woods on weekends looking for entertainment mostly involving booze, gambling and the ladies. Availability of books, it was hoped by the WCTU, might encourage a more civilized behavior. The local weekly newspaper, the Fort Bragg Advocate, reported in their July 2, 1890 issue that the reading room was to open at Mrs. Powell's1 White House Hotel2 at 135 N. Franklin Street that month.
In 1910 the Union Lumber Company, founder of the city, established a library in their boarding house recognizing that "anything done to make the surroundings...more refined will bear fruit."3
Later in 1910, on October 12th, the city fathers of Fort Bragg established a tax rate set at 754 per $100, with 104 going toward building and maintaining a public library.4 5
"In November 1910 a Library Board was formed and H. A. Weller6 donated use of two rooms in his building at the corner of Main and Laurel for temporary quarters. At that time the collections of the WCTU and the Union Lumber Company libraries were donated to the city. Volunteers ran food sales, white elephant sales, put on talent shows, showed films and went door-to-door soliciting library funds and donations of money toward the building project. The first library opened January 18, 1911, in the Jefferson Building8 on Laurel Street with Mrs. Dixon7 as librarian. Mrs. Perkins, the Ukiah Librarian, came to the coast for two days to help organize the collection and congratulated the city on all that was accomplished. On March 15th, 117 books were ordered from the $68.25 proceeds of a food sale and 130 library cards had been issued by that date. (Fort Bragg's population was 2,408 according to the Federal Census)."9
The library board consisted of Sam Shafsky10, Ed Scott, Mrs. Frank Roberts11 and Connie Ross. In March 1911 the library issued 130 borrowers' cards and received $50 in donations with some 117 volumes ordered. In the latter part of 1911, the Ed Dixons moved away from Fort Bragg and Mrs. Frank Roberts became librarian.
On April 26, 1911, C. R. Johnson, president of the Union Lumber Company, offered to donate a lot of 30 x 50 feet for the building on the condition that plans be drawn up by January 8, 1912. The site selected was the southwest corner of Main and Laurel Streets. Afterwards, the lumber company decided to give the city the lot just to the south of this and sold the corner to the Fort Bragg Commercial Bank. The bank bought the lot on the condition that the library be built five feet south of the property line to afford the bank extra light and safety.
The Library trustees decided to build a structure 35-ft.by 50-ft. So, it was arranged by the company to give the city a lot 422-ft. by 56-ft. This lot was deeded to the city under the following conditions:
"The deed and conveyance be made upon the condition that the lot of land
and any buildings and improvements erected there shall be used only, solely
and exclusively for and by the Free Public Library. And, in the event of a
failure on the part of the library to abide by the conditions, the title of the lot
and the right of possession shall be forfeited and the library would have 120
days to remove all its buildings and improvements from the lot, and the
realty would revert back to the company."
. . .
The Advocate in its January 8, 1913 issue reported:
"The Fort Bragg Library is now completed and will be occupied in a few days. It is the third of a series of modern business structures erected within the last year. It is one of the finest library buildings in Northern California. This artistic structure adorns West Main Street, standing up on a lot, which the Union Lumber Company so generously donated. It is a thirty-five by fifty-five foot wooden structure of a very plain and attractive design. The white exterior finishing give it a very cheerful appearance. The interior is finished entirely in natural redwood-waxed. A mezzanine floor fourteen by thirty-five feet makes quite an addition to the floor space. Among the other excellent lighting qualities - consisting of seven large plate glass windows and ten transoms, its efficient electric light system and its steam heating system. All of the other library furnishings will be of late design. Therefore, we feel assured that Fort Bragg will have one of the finest libraries in Northern California, a modern library in a modern city.
"The trustees of this institution who have given much of their valuable time toward the furtherance of this worthy cause, the Union Lumber Company who so generously donated the building site and the people of Fort Bragg in general who are standing the expense of this valuable addition to our city are deserving of the highest praise. They are now in a position to enjoy the fruits of their labors.
"This building built by Ed Holmes12, is one of the finest contract buildings ever erected in Fort Bragg. It is a building that Mr. Holmes had due reason to be proud of as well as the people of Fort Bragg. We regret very much that Mr. Holmes, through failing health, has found it necessary to move to a drier climate."
[EDITOR'S NOTE: He later came back to town.]
. . .
In October 1912 the [former] library building was finished at a cost of about $2,500. Galvanized pipes running from the company mill were put through-out the building for steam heat. Later on, a wood stove was used and still later, an oil stove. A butane furnace eventually was installed13.
George F. Aull, who
died in Fort Bragg
3, 1940, claimed in his
In the Advocate of September 10, 1924, the city librarian's report appeared
on the front page:
"The important part which the Public Library plays in the lives of the people
of this community was brought out very forcibly by the annual report of the
Mrs. B. F. Wright15 which was read at
"It is probable that no other expenditure of public funds is as far reaching in
its benefit as the library fund and no equal amount of money expended in a
public way brings as great good to as great a number of people. Numbered
among the members and attendants are people from every walk in life,
American and foreign born young and old which is convincing that the Fort
Bragg Free Library is fulfilling the mission for which it was built.
"To best show the growth of the library since it was instituted in 1910, we
will give a comparison of figures. During the first year 1910-11 the average
monthly attendance was 311 and the number of books loaned 239. From
1923-24 the average monthly attendance was 2,053
"Following is the full report of the librarian from July 1, 1923 to July 1,
1924: Fines collected $97.80, membership fees $16.55, cash paid out
$42.14, paid into treasury $72.53. Attendance during year 24,642, Books
loaned 19,618. Juveniles 7598. Magazines loaned, 497. Number of
members July 1, 1923, 2,982, Joined during year 325. Total membership
July 1924, 3307. Number books in library July 1, 1923, 5,510, purchased
during year 484. Total number of books 5,994. Total magazines subscribed
for 20, newspapers 4."
. . .
"Mrs.Bertie Wright became librarian in 1919 and under her management, the
library grew for 25 years until such time she decided to retire. Virginia
Brown became librarian for one year in 1944. She moved away from the
area at the end of the second World War. On Oct.15,1945 Daisy Dodge16
became Librarian, a position she has held since. Franklyn Albertson17 is
presently the chairman of the library board19." [Advocate September 3, 1964].
Library activities were regularly reported in the weekly press and included new books received, hours of operation and programs available. No serious controversies disturbed the calm until a first distant rumble of change was noted in June 1947 when the County Supervisors began a study for establishing a county system. A California State Library representative addressed a Fort Bragg group in May 1960 saying that libraries were failing to keep up with public demands. At this time the Ukiah Library joined the North Bay Cooperative.
In September 1960 the City of Fort Bragg authorized repairs to the library stating that the City's chief aim was to provide the city with an attractive and efficient city library. Meanwhile, over the hill in Ukiah, the County Supervisors were considering a county library system recognizing that Mendocino County was one of only six California counties without a county system.18 The next month the Supervisors declined to establish a county library but said they were keeping their minds "open". A Library Advisory Board was created in Ukiah in June 1963 but it did not include any coast people. A grant covering the cost of a bookmobile demonstration project lasting until June 1964 was accepted and put into use. Proposition "A" calling for creation of a county library system appeared on the
June 2, 1964 ballot and was approved by the county's voters. The Supervisors created the County Library System in July 1964.
In December 1965 Fort Bragg's city fathers considered joining the North Coast Cooperative Library System and later, in February 1966, the County System. The City Library joined 16 other libraries in the North Coast Cooperative in April 1966. On April 25th Fort Bragg asked Mendocino County to take over operation of its library; the building was still to be owned and maintained by the city. The Board of Supervisors agreed; the merger was consummated July 1, 1966.
In October 1970 Fort Bragg library hours were 10 a.m.- 9 p.m. Monday through Friday and noon to 5 p.m. on Saturday.
On March 28, 1974 a meeting was held at the Fort Bragg High School for the purpose of organizing a Friends of the Library group to ascertain opinions on "ways the present coastal library facility can be upgraded..."20 From this meeting came formation of the Fort Bragg Friends of the Library.
From Gerry Grader's column in the Advocate April 4, 1974:
"GOOD TIME TO CATCH UP ON READING...after all it will be days before
the ground is in any sort of shape for serious gardening. Which is a long
lead in the news that Fort Bragg is on its way to having a Friends of the
Library group. Virginia Barrett, city librarian, met with readers last week, a
committee to set long and short range goals was named and a meeting set
up again on April 25th. On the committee are: Sterling Webb, Charlene
Aumack, Verda Wakerley21, Thelma Pierson22, Mildred Williams and Judy
Hawk. Everything from enlarging the library to cataloging to a book sale
. . .
In the May 30, 1974 issue of the Advocate:
"Friends of the Library Plan Book sale
"Linda Dempsey, chairman, opened the meeting of the Friends of the Fort
Bragg Library May 17. Mildred Williams was elected treasurer and was
directed to open a bank account for the money received as membership
dues. Thelma Pierson was elected secretary. Virginia Barrett announced that
the Ford Agency kindly agreed to the use of its building for a proposed book
sale on Labor Day weekend, Paul Bunyan Days.
"It was decided that the Friends of the Fort Bragg Library would sponsor a
retirement dinner for Daisy Dodge on June 30th at the Piedmont Hotel
banquet room. Mrs. Dodge has served for many years in the Fort Bragg
library and is retiring at the end of June.
"It is suggested that the friends purchase a locked bookcase for the
Bancroft Books, now being repaired in Ukiah, with the money realized from
the book sale. The next meeting will be at 10 a.m. June 21 at city hall."
. . .
In late March 1975 the first photocopier was installed at the library.
In July 1977 a poll was taken to determine if the library should be open on Sunday. The vote was 110 in favor - a heavy majority of the votes cast.
A small room on the mezzanine floor became the genealogy room in September 1978. Paid for by the Mendocino Coast Genealogical Society, it was mostly occupied by a too large glass-topped table attended by ten uncomfortable stiff-backed wooden chairs. The Society and the Friends of the Library board remember meetings there for how tight the quarters were.
A dire forecast for the infamous Proposition 13 slated for the up-coming June 9, 1978 ballot predicted trouble should it pass. The measure passed by a three to one margin in Mendocino County versus the two to one ratio in the rest of California. A month after the election library funds were pared so that open hours were reduced to 24 per week which provided for a Librarian, one aide, one 15 hour part-timer and one 24 hour part-timer. Open hours had been 57 per week including Sunday hours from 1 to 5. By November the hours had been further reduced to Monday and Thursday 10 a.m.- 9 p.m.; Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday 10 a. m. to 6 p.m.
full effect of Proposition 13
was yet to
be felt. Library funds were cut again in September
1982 reducing hours
Monday and Thursday 10 a. m. to 9 p.m.; Tuesday,
The Friends of the Library rallied to protect their library. Norman Hallam, County Director of Libraries, advised that the cost to run the Fort Bragg branch in fiscal 1984 was $85,306. The Friends began to plan how they could raise funds to keep the library open should the County fail to provide funding.
The chill exuded by Proposition 13 extended year by year until 40% of former library funding had vanished. Helen Stauer, the Fort Bragg representative on the County Library Advisory Board, warned that the County might withdraw funding for libraries.23 By July 1986 Supervisor Beltrami was suggesting that County libraries be closed because of the budget shortfall. Reaction in the press and from citizens was instantaneous with loud and rancorous crowds attending the budget sessions at the Supervisors' meeting in Ukiah. The newspaper opined that the library issue had united the county citizenry.
The first Proposition "A" was an attempt to institute a 1% "Use Tax" for five years. Ten percent of the money collected was to be returned to the fund to accommodate expected growth of the library system; the remaining ninety percent was to fund annual library operating and capital expenditures. The bill passed both houses of the legislature and went forward to the ballot without the Governor's signature. In November, however, voters, however, failed to approve the measure.
At the same time the first Proposition "A" was being promoted, the legislature passed a law allowing counties to put a 24 sales tax proposal on the ballot. The revenues were to go the counties' general fund. This action created a contentious conflict of policies between the Mendocino County Supervisors and the county power structure. Advocates for general funds versus those favoring the libraries produced heavy citizen lobbying which finally resulted in an ordinance to put the Library Endowment fund on the ballot as Measure "G" for the coming election and then the general fund measure on the next election. Measure "G", which called for a 34 increase, also failed at the polls.
In the early morning hours of September 20, 1987 the library in Fort Bragg was destroyed in an arson fire set just seven minutes after a fire was set in the Piedmont Hotel. Destruction was total. Again, local citizens immediately set to work to restore library services by organizing Operation Phoenix. The first donation of $1,000 came in two days after the fire from Cap'n Flint’s Restaurant in Noyo harbor. But where was a suitable building to be had? The answer turned out to be a former mortuary constructed in 1966.
The Advocate in its September 22, 1966 issue had displayed a picture of a new funeral home to be constructed on the northwest corner of Laurel and Whipple Streets. Construction was done by Elden Victor Ingram24 who began work in November; the facility was opened March 4, 1967. Twenty years later this facility known as the Cannaar- Fairlee Building was available for sale and was suggested to the Fort Bragg City Council as the best site for the library25. The Friends of the Library requested that the City purchase the building for $259,000, but were turned-down. After County officials toured the facility in December, 1987, the purchase was concluded May 3, 198826. Remodeling bids were approved in September with Jerry Matson of Fort Bragg doing the work.
Amid all this activity a ballot initiative to institute a long range county library tax, second Measure "A", failed at the June 7, 1988 election.
On May 25, 1989 after 1 year 8 months, 11 days and 5 hours, library services were restored to Fort Bragg. During the 20 month hiatus, thousands of books had been donated by book dealers, libraries and individuals. They had to be sorted, stored, shifted from place to place. Despite the problems the library staff continued to provide limited services to the public available from the historic Fort building and the County's Educational Video Van. While many were "new" items from publishers' overstocks and de-accessioned remainders from other library collections, all were welcomed as symbols of a "phoenix arising from the ashes" of the old Fort Bragg library and so marked by special book plates.
. . .
opening of the new
and services boomed. Interlibrary loans that had
begun with receipt of
first batch from Ukiah on
. . .
But the bugaboo of budget cuts once again affected the County libraries in the tight times of the early 1990s. Every budget hearing was a tug-of-war between the under-funded library and all other county services. By 1989 $663,000 remained from the fire insurance settlement. $300,000 had been spent for purchase and remodeling of the "new" building in Fort Bragg. The County took $363,000 as its share because of damages to the adjoining court building. By May 1990 the remaining $150,000 was transferred to the County's general fund. This arbitrary action resulted in an public uproar and a Grand Jury inquiry, but the money was never restored.
Again, budget woes forced cuts in library hours in July 199027. Two years later in April 1992 library budget cuts were still again a major threat, but the Board of Supervisors reversed themselves saying only that they would close the library if "Proposition A" should fail at the June 2nd election - and it did, barely. However,the library stayed open. The Friends of the Fort Bragg Library mounted a vigorous campaign to preserve county library services culminating in a "Rap" musical presentation to the Board of Supervisors on August 7, 1992 to emphasize that there were other departments that could be squeezed for funds without killing the libraries. Additional pressure came from the Friends of the Ukiah Library who threatened to sue. Despite this uproar library budget cuts were again threatened in October 1992, but now the Board of Supervisors realized that libraries were "hot wires" best not tampered with. Creation of a special tax district to eliminate this annual fuss-and-feathers now became apparent to the Board which set-up a permanently-funded district. While the special district designation did not totally eliminate funding cuts, the threat of total closure was ended.
. . .
The Friends of the Fort Bragg Library, first established in 1974, incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation in December 1991. That organization remains a strong and functional support of the Fort Bragg Branch's continued operations by providing library materials and equipment not funded by the County. Similar public organizations are active in Ukiah, Willits and Point Arena.
In 1993 the Fort Bragg branch began automating the collection into the electronic Dynix System with a funding assist from the Friends. The lengthy program was an instant success and made accessible the collections of many related libraries resulting in an ever increasing flow of inter-library materials. In February 1996 Internet access was opened to Fort Bragg library patrons - the first branch of the Mendocino County system to do so.28 At first e-mail was not allowed, but necessity and technological advances soon overcame that restriction.
The impact of providing public access to the Internet had unintended consequences – the number of patrons attracted to the library expanded not only computer usage but also increased the volume of checked-out materials to a point where the library’s capacity was severely strained. Modernization and expansion of the facility became the top priority of the Friends of the Library as the millennium dawned. Years of accumulated funds had been wisely invested to provide extra support for the library operations. It was now time to direct those funds toward helping the facility cope with the burgeoning traffic. The Friends of the Library formed an alliance with the County of Mendocino to explore improvements to the Fort Bragg Library. In cooperation with the Grounds and Buildings Department and the blessings of the Board of Supervisors, an architect was selected to prepare plans for modernization. The architect, Tom Hise of Hopland, developed an insightful program to convert the former mortuary into an efficient library space. Put out to bid in 2005 the costs proved to be too much for the budget. The Friends of the Fort Bragg Library and the County put the plans in abeyance until more funds could be amassed.
Through several fortuitous bequests funds did appear to the point the Friends and the County again sent the updated plans out for bid in 2006. The winning contractor was Joe Rosenthal Construction Company of Fort Bragg who quickly and thoroughly carried the job of gutting the interior for creation of the opened-up “cathedral” effect in the eastern half of the building. Office and community room changes added to the efficiency of the new plan.
An alternate library was installed in the Veterans’ building across Laurel Street to provide continued access to the public for some books and media. The balance of the collection was stored in county facilities in town. Opened October 10, 2006 the temporary facility was called Fort Bragg Library @Vets. This operation lasted until June 9, 2007 during the period the main facility was under construction.
The remodeled library which stayed within the original footprint of the old facility was reopened to the public June 19, 2007 followed by a celebration July 3, 2007. The cost of the project shared by the Friends of the Fort Bragg Library exceeded $520,000 of which the Friends contributed $470,000. Not included in this cost were the many contributions of time and labor by volunteers, personnel from Parlin Forks and Chamberlain Creek and county staff.
Remodeling the Fort Bragg Branch Library proved to be extremely timely as usage soared in the following year to equal, and sometimes exceed, operations at the main library at Ukiah.
. . .
Other Fort Bragg library items of passing interest:
Fort Bragg branch librarians were:
Veronica A. Dixon 1911 - 1911
Ruth U. Roberts 1911 - 1919
Mrs. Bertie F. Wright 1919 - 1944
Virginia Brown 1944 - 1945
Daisy V. Dodge 1945 - 1974
Virginia Barrett 1974 - 1979
Sylvia Kozak-Budd 1979 - 1999
Godelieve Uyttenhove 1999 - 1999
Carl Danis 1999 - 2000
Robin Watters 2000 - 2006
Judith Kayser 2006 -
The painting in the
community room was done by Nina Mira in 1980 and
the flagpole was installed June 27, 1990.
the Humboldt redwood burl table in the community room was donated by
Grace Brayer in memory of her late husband Dr.Herbert Brayer.
The Friends purchased a historic reference table for the library in 1999. It
had come to California around Cape Horn in a sailing ship.
. . .
1. Mrs. Georgia C. Powell ran a temperance establishment in the White House Hotel at
135 N. Franklin Street. She and Mr. Powell had come to the coast in
the 1870s and operated a ranch and dairy business near the Ten Mile River. Later they
moved to Kibesillah where he served as a Justice of the Peace and deputy sheriff. When
C. R. Johnson moved the sawmill to the old military reservation at Fort Bragg in 1885, the
Powells relocated to Cleone and later to Fort Bragg. She was 78 when she died April 5,
2. The White House burned in the earthquake and fire of April 18, 1906.
3. Sylvia Kozak-Budd's historical review, 1989. Another account said about 1904.
5. By Chapter 2.32.010 of the Fort Bragg Municipal Code " A public library is established in
and for the city to be maintained in all respects in accordance with the provisions of Chapter
170 of the Statutes of 1901, as amended by Chapter 292 of the Statutes of 1905.
6. Horace A. Weller, Pennsylvania born in 1847, came to California as a youth and operated a
sawmill on Ten Mile River with his brother-in-law Calvin Stewart in the 1880s. In 1886
he came to Fort Bragg, set up a store, organized the first bank, helped found the Baptist
Church, established the first cemetery and was active in local affairs. He died January 10,
Mrs. Veronica A. Dixon, the wife of Edward W.
Dixon who ran a
grocery in Fort Bragg before
8. The newspaper account states that the building was the Doidge Building. The location was
on the south side of Laurel Street just across the alley from Wonacott's Photo Shop which is
now (2006) the Headlands Cafe...FBAN Sep 3, 1964
10. Samuel Shafsky, a pioneer Fort Bragg merchant, was born in Berlin, Germany, in 1868.
Brought to America and raised in New York, he came west with his brothers and set up a
mercantile operation in Fort Bragg's early days. Their store was destroyed in the
April 18, 1906 earthquake, but they soon recovered. He served as a city trustee in 1912
and later as mayor. He died November 26, 1944...BDM Vol.5.
Ruth U. Roberts
Frank Irwin Roberts) came to Fort Bragg on a cargo
steamer as a
1990...BDM Vol.7 and Vol.10.
in Massachusetts in 1872, he came to the coast in
pneumonia July 20, 1932 while running for the post of County Supervisor...BDM Vol.4.
13. Advocate September 3, 1964
14. George E. Aull (1860-1940)... BDM Vol.5.
15. Mrs. Bertie F. Wright, librarian 1919-1945, died March 7, 1962...BDM Vol.7.
16. Daisy V. Dodge, born in Ukiah in 1906, served as Fort Bragg librarian from 1942
to 1974. She died March 28, 1988...BDM Vol. 9.
17. Franklyn O. Albertson was a Fort Bragg resident 44 years. A banker from 1922-1970, he
served on many civic commissions and boards. He died January 11, 1973...BDM Vol 8.
18. Advocate January 26, 1961.
19. Daisy Dodge was Librarian until June 30, 1974 when she was succeeded by Virginia
Barrett. Sylvia Kozak-Budd became the Fort Bragg Branch Librarian in July 1979. Sylvia had
been the childrens' librarian at Ukiah from 1971 before coming to Fort Bragg. In 1999 she
moved on to become a childrens' librarian for the County-traveling far and wide. She retired
in 2000. Her successor at Fort Bragg was Godelieve Uyttenhove in February 1999, who
moved to Weaverville on May 31, 1999 to become Library Director for Trinity County. In the
interim the staff carried on services until Carl Danis from Humboldt County succeeded
to the Fort Bragg position on July 12, 1999. Carl resigned October 4, 2000 and in turn was
succeeded by Robbin Watters from Sonoma County on March 5, 2001. Robin left for a
new position in the Sonoma County library system in May 2006. Judith Kayser, formerly
the bookmobile librarian, became Fort Bragg's library director July 1, 2006.
20. Advocate March 28, 1974.
21. Verda Wakerley, died January 22, 1996...BDM Vol.10.
22. Thelma Pierson died August 31, 1995...BDM Vol.10.
23. Minutes FFBL October 18, 1985.
24. Elden Victor Ingram, born in Idaho, was a builder in the Fort Bragg area who built the
Tradewinds Motel, the Coast Theatre and the Cannarr- Fairless mortuary. He died June 14,
25. Janet Barnes' letter to Council October 23, 1987.
26. Advocate June 9, 1988.
27. ibid July 5, 1990.
28. ibid February 8, 1996.
"Advocate" refers to the Fort Bragg Advocate-News located at
450 N. Franklin Street and its predecessors, the Fort Bragg
Advocate and Fort Bragg Advocate News.
"BDM" refers to Births, Deaths and Marriages on California's Mendocino
Coast 1889-1999 published in ten volumes by Heritage Publishing
Company, Bowie, Maryland. These books were publications created by the
Mendocino Coast Genealogical Society, Fort Bragg, 1995-2002.
"FFBL" refers to Friends of the Fort Bragg Library, a
California not-for-profit corporation.
. . .
For pictures see Advocate
November 17, 1966 - picture of new funeral home.
November 28, 1974 - page 3, interior old library.
August 21, 1975, Ann North examining Bancroft set.
October 1, 1987 - fire issue.
December 4, 1929, page 1
October 1, 1987
Thanks to Janet Barnes for the loan of
and old minutes of the
. . .